Yellow Fever Information

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General Vaccine Information
Below is information about other commonly administered travel vaccinations: Typhoid Fever  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) This is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by a bacteria that is generally ingested by consuming contaminate food or beverages or coming into contact with fecal material from an infected individual.  Symptoms can include fever, diarrhea or constipation, abdominal pain, headache and anorexia.  It is estimated that approximately 200,000 individuals die each year worldwide from Typhoid Fever 1 Typhoid Fever is found in most parts of the world EXCEPT in industrialized areas such as the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia and Japan.  There are two Typhoid Fever vaccines available in the United States - an injectable form and an oral form. Hepatitis A  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) This is an illness caused by a virus that is generally ingested by consuming contaminate food or beverages. Coming into contact with even microscopic amounts of fecal material from an infected individual can cause Hepatitis A disease.  This virus causes acute liver disease and inflammation that leads to symptoms including abdominal pain, fatigue and jaundice.  Hepatitis A does not cause a chronic infection. The Hepatitis A vaccine is an injectable vaccine given routinely to children in the United States as well as unvaccinated travelers.  The vaccine series consists of two injections given over six months. Hepatitis B  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) This is an illness caused by a virus that is contracted from contact with contaminated bodily fluids and blood.  Hepatitis B is also considered a sexually transmitted disease. Hepatitis B can cause a range of symptoms from a mild illness to a serious long-term infection that can lead to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.  The Hepatitis B vaccine is an injectable vaccine given routinely to children in the United States as well as unvaccinated travelers.  The vaccine series consists of three injections given over six months. Note regarding Hepatitis A and B - Denver Travel Medicine Clinic does administer Twinrix ® which is a combination vaccine containing Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B vaccinations in one injection. Meningitis (Meningococcal)  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) Meningitis is a condition caused by inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.  Symptoms of meningitis include fever, headache, stiff neck, light sensitivity, and rash.  These symptoms can be more difficult to detect in young children. Approximately 10% of those diagnosed with bacterial meningitis in the United States will die from the disease or it’s complications. The Meningitis vaccine helps protect against CERTAIN TYPES of bacterial meningitis caused by strains of the bacteria  Neisseria meningitidis.  The Denver Travel Medicine Clinic administers the Meningitis vaccine called Menactra ® (MVC4). Tdap (Tetanus / Diphtheria / Pertussis Combination Vaccination)  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) Tdap is a combination vaccination with three components: Tetanus - This is a serious disease that causes painful tightening of the muscles through out the body.  It can lead to locking of the jaw which can prevent the infected individual from open their mouth or swallowing.  Approximately 10% of people who get tetanus will die from it or it’s complications. Diphtheria - This is a potentially serious respiratory illness caused by a bacteria that leads to sore throat, fever, neck swelling and in some cases airway obstruction requiring intubation, inflammation of the heart muscle, and inflammation of the nerves in the body. Pertussis - This is a highly contagious respiratory illness commonly known as whooping cough.  It can cause violent coughing, shortness of breath and in severe cases it can cause respiratory failure and encephalopathy.  1 in 100 infants who are diagnosed with pertussis will die from this illness or it’s complications 2.  The Tdap vaccine is an injectable vaccine. MMR (Measles / Mumps / Rubella Combination Vaccination)  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) MMR is a combination vaccination with three components: Measles - This is caused by a highly contagious respiratory virus.  It is also known as rubeola.  Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, body aches and rash.  Approximately 2 in every 1000 children that get measles will die from it or it’s complications3. Mumps - This is also a highly contagious disease caused by a virus.  Symptoms typically include fever, headache, body aches, fatigue, loss of appetite and gland swelling.  The salivary glands in the face and neck often get very swollen.  Orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) can also occur in males. Rubella - This is also a highly contagious disease caused by a viral infection.  Symptoms include fever and rash.  Pregnant women who contract Rubella can develop serious complications with the pregnancy including fetal deafness, cataracts, mental retardation, and liver and spleen abnormalities. The MMR vaccine is an injectable vaccine. Polio  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) Polio is a high infectious disease caused by a virus that affects the nervous system.  Symptoms can sometimes be mild and include fever, fatigue, nausea, and headache.  Approximately 1% of individuals infected with polio will have permanent paralysis or weakness of the limbs 4. Japanese Encephalitis  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) This is a viral infection that is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.  Symptoms are sometimes mild including fever and headache but more severe infections can occur including neck pain and stiffness, disorientation, coma, tremors, and convulsions.  Fatality rates vary by report but can be between 0.3-60% 5 Rabies  (Link to Vaccine Information Sheet) This is a viral infection that is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected animal.  Raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes and dogs are the most common animals vectors.  Symptoms early on in the disease are fever, headache, weakness.  Later symptoms are confusion, paralysis, hallucinations.  Rabies is considered to be a fatal disease in all unvaccinated or untreated individuals6 1 = Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ. May 2004;82(5):346-53 2 = http://www.cdc.gov/features/pertussis/ 3 = http://www.cdc.gov/measles/about/overview.html 4 = http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/polio/dis-faqs.htm 5 = http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/jencephalitis/qa.htm 6 = http://www.cdc.gov/rabies/
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